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Keeping Cities Clean & Healthy

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Praveen Jha, Special Secretary, Government of Jharkhand

“Today the Solid Waste Management (SWM) in the country is not being done in scientific, hygienic or proper manner. There are lot of problems regarding the collection, dumping and other issues related to solid waste. Money gets wasted and people remain dissatisfied. The need of the hour is to deploy latest technologies and systems to ensure that there are better outcomes in SWM,” says Dr Praveen Jha, Special Secretary, Department of Information Technology Government of Jharkhand

The Government of India has now started taking cognisance of the problems that are there in the Solid Waste Management in most of the cities in the country. It was in September 2000 that the Solid waste policy in India was framed. The policy, framed on the basis of a March 1999 report, specifies the duties and responsibilities for hygienic waste management for cities and citizens of India. Both the report and the rules advocate a range of ideas for keeping our cities clean and healthy.

Causes of poor SWM
Currently the Solid Waste Management in India is not scientific, which is why our cities remain unclean and unhygienic. The location of the collection centres for solid waste is not properly identified and even the dumping grounds are not properly managed. At times there is clash in the timing of the vehicles carrying solid waste and the school and office goers. There is lot of wastage of money and majority of inhabitants of our urban areas are dissatisfied with the situation.
The main cause of the poor SWM in the country is that our plans are often not implemented on the ground or are totally unscientific. There is no long term planning. There is poor delivary system and tardy implementation. The monitoring is not proper. It has also been found that the data on SW is inaccurate; there is unscientific estimation of the population.

A New Approach to Solid Waste Management
The problems that are there in Solid Waste Management can be resolved to a large extent through scientific planning and optimisation of operations. The need of the hour is to use state-of the art technology for improving the delivery mechanism.

Planning

Planning for SWM

* Long term planning (say for 20-30 years) for SWM
* Planning for collection, transportation and disposal of SW X Optimization of attributes regarding Collection Points (CPs; ie places where SW should be collected)
* Optimization of transportation routes X Optimization of schedules regarding transportation, loading, unloading, stoppage etc
* Optimization of geo-spatial data regarding Dumping Station(s) [DS(s); ie place(s) where SW would be finally dumped] * Scientific estimation of SW quantity to be disposed/treated
* Minimization of physical resource requirement for the plan implementation regarding collection and transportation
* Public convenience to be taken care while planning
* Planning for institutional framework X Generation of economic model for operation of SWM

Planning for Monitoring

* Advanced geo-spatial web-based Management Information System (MIS)
*Automatic updation of dedicated portal
* Information Dissemination System (IDS) for public
* Social auditing

 

Technology


State-of-art geo-spatial programs, developed by the author, to be used:

* Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP): Based on satellite data, MAAP produces land use land cover (lulc) map of the present period
* Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP): MAAP, in conjunction with DAMP, produces lulc maps of the past periods as well as of the adjacent areas
* Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP): MUSSIP produces simulated data of the future periods
* Solid Waste Automated Management Program (SWAMP): Used as Decision Support System (DSS) for planning SWM

Technologies to be used:

* Artificial Intelligence X Machine Learning Algorithm
* Agent Base Modeling X Multi Agent Simulation X Cellular Automation
* Geographical Information System
* Digital Image processing

 

Methodology

Generation of Geo-Spatial Data on Solid Waste
* Generation of geo-spatial data on human population density distribution for the present period based on satellite data through the application of MAAP
* Generation of simulated geo-spatial data on human population density distribution for the future periods based on satellite data through the application of DAMP and MUSSIP
* Generation of geo-spatial data on SW for the present and future periods based on geo-spatial data on human population of the present and future periods
Planning for Collection of Solid Waste
* Optimization of geo-spatial data related to CPs for the present and future periods based on the geo-spatial data regarding SW through the application of SWAMP
* to be done for location of CPs, target area of CPs, attributes regarding Collection Boxes for each CP etc
* estimation of quantity of SW to be collected at each CP
Planning for Transportation of Solid Waste
* Optimization of geo-spatial data related to transportation of SW for the present and future periods based on the geo-spatial data regarding optimum CPs through the application of SWAMP
* Optimization to be done for transportation routes, for schedules regarding transportation, loading, unloading, stoppage etc
Planning for Disposal System of Solid Waste
* Optimization of geo-spatial data related to DS(s) for the present and future based on the geo-spatial data regarding optimum CPs and transportation routes through the application of SWAMP
* Optimization to be done for location of DS(s) and quantity of SW to be disposed of by the disposal\treatment units
Ensuring Public Convenience
* Criteria included during optimization of SW Collection: Distance of CP from the target population and approach to CP
* Criteria included during optimization of SW Transportation: Avoiding any clash of timing of the SW transportation with the school and office timings
Optimization of resources needed for the plan implementation
* Optimization of physical and financial resources done for plan implementation for the present and the future periods
* Optimization based on minimization of Net Present Value (NPV) of all the fixed and variable costs required for the plan implementation for the present and the future periods
* Optimization to be done for SW Collection, which would include precise cost details regarding collection boxes as per their size according to the optimum CPs
* Optimization to be done for SW Transportation, which would include number of vehicles, size of vehicles, number of drivers, wage of drivers and labour, fuel consumption etc for the present and future periods

Planning for Monitoring X Planning for a dynamic portal and a very advanced and automated MIS
* Integration of technologies like Geographic Information System (GIS), GPRS etc
* Automatic updation of geo-spatial data regarding transportation, loading, unloading etc
* Portal to contain other related information like expected time of arrival and departure of transportation vehicle all along the designated routes X Information dissemination through SMS and email and by providing open access of the portal
* Setting up facility to receive feedback from general public by internet, email, SMS and phone calls to ensure social audit

Planning for enhancing the delivery mechanism
* Planning for project mode based plan implementation
* All physical works to be split up into small definite targets along with the corresponding schedule
* Defining robust institutional framework for implementation of the plans
* Defining various levels of personnel having layered responsibilities with specific functions and corresponding schedule both for implementation and monitoring X Defining escalation matrix of personnel to tackle with failure in achieving the desired outcomes
* Inclusion of general public in the institutional framework for implementation and monitoring
* Ensuring social audit by providing open access of the portal and by setting up facility to receive feedback from general public

Generation of economic model for operation of SWM
* Economic modeling to layout specific details regarding meeting the operational cost
* Economic modeling to include support from Government and financial encumbrances of general public
* Government at liberty to choose from a set of best possible models that suits it

 

Advantages of the Approach

* Assured cleanliness of the city upon implementationX High chance of success, since the plans would be based on:
• Advanced technologies and state-of-art geo-spatial programs
• Robust data on SW over temporal horizon
* Planning for long tong time frame
* Optimum CPs, DS(s), transportation routes and schedules regarding transportation, loading, unloading, stoppage etc
* Minimum physical and financial resource required for plan implementation
* Assured public convenience X Robust institutional framework for plan implementation
* Best suited economic model for SWM operations X Advanced geo-spatial web-based MIS
* Automatic updation of dedicated portal X Real time and public friendly IDS
* Social auditing
* Public satisfaction upon implementation

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