December 2006

Deconstructing Secondary
Education

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The Smart Schools in Malaysia were never intended for smart students only when they were firstenvisioned. It was an ambitious project that brought together the Education Ministry, private industries andother stakeholders to work hand-in-hand to create a schooling culture that is informed, thinking, andcreative using technology as an enabler in the teaching and learning process in line with the country'sneeds to make the critical transformation from a production-based economy to a knowledge-basedeconomy by 2020. The project started with 87 pilot schools from 1999 is now being expanded to reach10,000 schools by the year 2010. The featured story focuses on the implementation of the teaching andlearning processes at the pilot schools and the challenges faced by the schools in trying to achieve thestipulated goals of the Smart Schools. It also looks at the post pilot phase and the rollout plans lay down bythe Ministry to move forward towards achieving Malaysia's vision of producing knowledge-based workers.

At the initial stage of the smart school project, many people had the notion that the Smart School was a school for smart students only, and that without the presence of technology or computers, a school could not be termed a Smart School. Therefore, to put it in the right perspective, it must be stressed here that the Smart School is for all children and technology is just an enabler and not a driver, and its presence in the schools does not mean it can catalyse better educational outcomes. It is however correct to say that with the use of technology, we are able to take the Smart School to its destination more quickly and efficiently. 

The Conceptual Blueprint that was published in 1997 defines the Smart School as “a learning institution that has been systemically reinvented in terms of teaching-learning practices and school management in order to prepare children for the Information Age”. The word “systemically reinvented” is used in the definition because the Ministry of Education, Malaysia intends to make a radical transformation to the education system by reviewing the curriculum and pedagogy, enhancing the roles of teachers, administrators, parents and the community, and empowering the students to become more responsible for their own learning by practising self-accessed, self-directed and self-paced learning. 

The presence of the information and communication technology (ICT) is critical because it helps in making the teaching and learning processes more interesting and enriching, and in the long run, the students will become more technology savvy. The Smart School initiative has been planned to ensure that the education system prepares future Malaysian citizens not only as knowledge workers for the Information Age but to be able to achieve Malaysia's vision of becoming a fully developed nation by the year 2020.


The Pilot Phase

The Smart School project started in early 1996 when the Ministry of Education (MOE), Malaysia first discussed its concept and implications on the education system. By late 1996, the Smart School Flagship became one of the seven applications identified under the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) initiative (The MSC is a 15 x 50 km zone, stretching from the Kuala Lumpur City Centre to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport launched in 1996 as a regional launch site for companies developing or using leading multimedia technology).

The Telekom Smart School (TSS), a consortium led by Telekom Malaysia was awarded the contract to develop the applications. The Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC), a private company wholly owned by the Malaysian Government to manage and market the MSC, also collaborated with the Ministry of Education to ensure the implementation of the Smart School flagship.

Ninety schools throughout Malaysia were identified to pilot the project but this was later reduced to 87 because three new Smart Schools could not be built on time when the pilot was launched. This included 83 secondary and 4 primary schools. Of these, 6 new schools (2 secondary and 4 primary) were built and provided with the level A (Full Classroom Model) Smart School technology specification and the rest were existing secondary schools (41 fully residential schools and 40 day schools) that were provided with level B (Laboratory Model) and one school with level B+ (Limited Classroom Model) technology specifications. Each new Smart School with the A technology level was provided with 520 computers (7 computers in all the classrooms and science labs, 4 computer labs with 36 computers each, and the rest in the teachers' room, resource centre, and the administrative office); Level B schools were provided with 37 computers (one computer lab with 21 computers, and the others in the resource centre and administrative office); and the Level B+ school was provided with 81 computers (6 computers in 15 classrooms and science lab and the rest in the resource centre and administrative office). 

  • Technology Infrastructurecomprising IT and non-ITequipment, Local Area Networks,and a virtual private network thatconnects the pilot schools, theMinistry's Data Centre and HelpDesk;
  • Support Services in the form of acentralised Help Desk, andservice centres throughout thecountry to provide maintenanceand support;
  • Funding for the Smart SchoolProject was provided by thegovernment with an allocation ofRM400 million, of which RM100million was for the training ofadministrators and teachers onthe Smart School concept andRM300 million was for theimplementation of the SmartSchool Integrated Solution(SSIS) in the 87 pilot schoolsunder the Pilot Project Agreementbetween the Government andTSS signed in 1999.

The Smart School Curriculum was developed by the Curriculum Development Centre; pre-service and in-service training of teachers was conducted by the Teacher Education Division; and the training of school administrators was undertaken by the Aminuddin Baki Institute, the Ministry of Education's staff development centre. 

The Smart School Pilot Project ended in December 2002, with 87 networked schools throughout the country, 1494 courseware titles for the 4 subjects, a computerised and integrated Smart School Management System, a Help Desk and Data Centre, and trained administrators, teachers, and IT coordinators in all the pilot schools.

The Smart School concept
 
The teaching and learning environment is integral to the Smart School concept and comprises four areas, namely, the curriculum that is designed to help students achieve overall and balanced development; pedagogy that allows for the appropriate mix of learning strategies to ensure mastery of basic competencies and promotion of holistic development; assessment that is designed to give accurate feedback of students' readiness, progress, achievement and aptitude; and teaching and learning materials that are cognitively challenging and motivating by combining the best of network-based, teacher-based, and courseware materials.

Even before the pilot project was officially launched in July 1999 with the signing of the agreement between the government of Malaysia and TSS, the schools identified for the pilot project were already asked to implement the Smart School teaching and learning process in January 1998, and the four subject teachers were required to introduce “smart” teaching and learning, with or without ICT. In-service teacher training had already started the year before with one teacher for every subject from each pilot school undergoing a 14-week course at selected Teacher Training Colleges. These teachers in turn conducted in-house training for their colleagues.

Initial evaluation of the Smart School Pilot Project

With the implementation of the Smart School project, the Schools Division was requested to coordinate the evaluation process, and the collaborative monitoring was carried out twice, once in 2000 and another one in 2001, after which it was taken over by the Smart School Team at the Technology Education Division. When the monitoring was conducted in 2000 and 2001, the Smart School Integrated Solution was not fully released to the schools and the full integrated solution was only utilised fully in March 2003.

Teaching and Learning in a Smart School
In the Smart School Pilot Project, the teaching and learning materials were developed for only four selected subjects, namely, Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language), English Language, Science and Mathematics. The materials developed were in the form of browser-based courseware, teachers' guides, student worksheets, and exemplar lesson plans. The instructional design for the materials took into account the curriculum specifications and the pedagogical demands of the Smart School as described in the Conceptual Blueprint as follows:

  • Must cater to the different capabilities of students, for example,  their learning styles, multiple intelligences, and learning modalities;

  • Be suitable for a variety of learning environments, ranging from teacher-centred to student-centred environments;

  • Allow students to practise self-paced, self-accessed, and self-directed learning;

  • Must have built-in assessment capabilities so that assessment records can be stored electronically for teachers to monitor students' progress;

  • Promote values, skills (especially creative and critical thinking skills), knowledge and language across the curriculum; and

  • Allow for horizontal integration between subjects, and vertical integration between learning areas in a subject.

The self-paced, self-accessed and self-directed learning is a new feature of the smart school teaching and learning process in which it is envisaged that this type of learning can be facilitated via the use of technology.

Evaluation of the Pilot Schools in the post-pilot phase (2002

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